Archive for September, 2013

History of Ivy League schools.

In 1636, education started growing within America with the founding of the Harvard College by English Puritans. Seven more schools were founded, including Brown University, Columbia University, Cornell University, Dartmouth College, Princeton University, University of Pennsylvania and the Yale University. The Harvard College was established by the General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and was named after its first donator, John Harvard.

Two very notable universities of the Ivy League are the Princeton University and the Brown University. 

The Princeton University is known today as one of the richest colleges in the world. It was first established in 1746 as the College of New Jersey, making it the fourth-oldest college in America. The colleges moved to Princeton in 1756 and took place in the Nassau Hall where it was kept for almost half a century. The college expanded, and achieved University status in 1896, as well as officially changing its name to Princeton University. The approximate number of students enrolled at Princeton is around 4,760, and 850 full time teachers. Many of the teachers have Nobel Prizes for physics, economics and medicine. 

The Brown University was the college of the Ivy League Schools, and founded in 1764. It was the first college to accept students regardless of their religion. Its first settlement was at Warren, Rhode Island. Like Princeton, the college was later moved and its name was also changed. The Brown University was simply known as the College of Rhode Island. It was moved in 1770 overlooking Providence, and was renamed Brown in 1804 after receiving $5,000 from Nicholas Brown. Two undergraduates, Ira Magaziner and Elliot E. Maxwell, part of the Group Independent study Project, reported the education at Brown. As a result, in 1970, the college started using what is known as the Brown Curriculum. In 2002, the Plan for Academic Enrichment encouraged the Brown college and influenced better education and public leadership. As a result, Schools for engineering and the School of Public Health were established. 

Sources: http://www.brown.edu/about/history

http://www.visitprinceton.org/activities/history/university/

http://www.america.edu/the_history_of_ivy_league_universities.html

September 26, 2013 at 2:59 pm 2 comments

Ivy League Universities: How they became what they are today

Sam Operchuck

September 26th

 


 

            Ivy League refers to any of the eight universities originally founded in New England. All of these schools are now associated with high educational and economical prestige, but how did they grow to this point?

 

Harvard, the oldest and arguably by many the most recognizable of all the ivy league members, was founded in 1636. Harvard earned it’s name from their first benefactor: John Harvard who “upon his death in 1638 left his library and half his estate to the institution.” Harvard began with a mere nine students and a single headmaster, and has advanced to more than 20,000 degree candidates as well as “more than 360,000 living alumni in the U.S. and over 190 other countries.” Harvard was found based on extremely strong Christian roots. The early motto was “Veritas Christo et Ecclesiae” which translated reads “Truth for Christ and the Church.” Increase Mather, who took presidency of Harvard in 1692, planted many of Harvard’s incredibly strong Christian principles and teachings. During the years of the early classes, half of the graduates became ministers, however, by the 1760s the percentage had dropped significantly to 15%. Hints of secularization of the college began to surface after Increase Mather stepped down from his presidency of Harvard. “Secularization of the American university began with the takeover of Harvard by the Unitarians in 1805.” The college’s first liberal president was John Leverett who began his term in 1708. “Leverett, a religious liberal and a layman, set the college on its course away from Calvinist orthodoxy.”

 

Harvard’s biggest rival within the Ivy League, Yale University, is the third oldest in the league (founded in 1702), and similarly received it’s name from a benefactor: Elihu Yale, “A governer of the British East India Company” who donated “over 400 books, a portrait of King George I, and cloth goods that sold for 562 pounds.” Plans for Yale can be dated all the way back to 1656, but were suspended due to Charles II decree of forcing New Haven to unite with Connecticut. Yale’s purpose at it’s founding was to train political leaders and clergy of the colony of Connecticut. Abraham Pierson was Yale’s first president (or rector) and the college was ran out of his home “until his death in 1707, when it moved to Saybrook.” However, the college’s base was moved yet again in 1716 when New Haven’s citizens outbid all other communities both monetarily and in available land.   Another Yale president, Timothy Dwight the elder, appointed Benamin Silliman as the first science professor of America in 1802. Silliman developed a medical school in 1810 and “housed in the country’s first university art gallery in 1832; … founding a graduate school and scientific school in 1847.” By the 1850s Yale was the largest college in the country. Yale College was the first to award doctor of philosophy degrees in America in 1861. By 1887 Yale became “Yale university”. Then in 1892 women were admitted to the university, seven of whom received doctor of philosophy degrees in 1894.

 

Thus the heritage of these Ivy League members can be strongly attributed to their key role models and leaders. It is plain what influence their presidents had on them, and how it shaped them into where they are now. Unfortunately many Ivy League schools have pulled away from their Christian roots, similar to Harvard. It is also interesting to observe what incredible forward bounds these universities made in education and arts in fairly short amounts of time.

 

Citations:

 

Unknown -http://www.america.edu/the_history_of_ivy_league_universities.html

Samuel Eliot Morison­ – The Founding of Harvard College (1935) p. 300

April 6th 2008, http://www.forerunner.com/forerunner/X0100_Christianity_in_U.S..html

Barrett Wendell, Cotton Mather, the Puritan priest (1897) p 35

http://www.library.yale.edu/mssa/YHO/brief_history.html

September 26, 2013 at 11:48 am 1 comment

Social classes

I think we have an excellent social system right now. I don’t like the idea of feudalism in that, someone completely awesome and hardworking could be born into a low class and even though he has the ability to be at the top of the class, he has to stay where he was because of where he was born. Europe used this for centuries, and it was very oppressive to people. I think that you should be known for how diligently you work instead of if were lucky enough to get born into the right family. Capitalism provides America with this great privilege.

September 25, 2013 at 8:46 pm 2 comments

Harvard and William & Mary

William and Mary’s College was founded as an Anglican school in 1693 by King William III and Queen Mary of England.  They signed the charter for the college.  It was the first college to offer an elective system of study.  This system allowed the students to choose their own courses.  Surprisingly, I did not find anything about being a Christian school on their website, despite being founded by Anglican beliefs.  However, in 1906 it became a state supported school.  That might be why it doesn’t have anything to do with Christianity today.  Some famous people who graduated from the college are Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe, and John Tyler.

Harvard was founded in 1636 by the great and general court of Massachusetts Bay Colony.  The college was named after a young minister, John Harvard, who gave his library and half of his estate to the college when he died.  Harvard started with nine students and one teacher.  Today, Harvard has more than 20,000 students and over 2,000 teachers.  Harvard might have started losing its Christian beliefs when Charles William Eliot became president in 1869.  I think this because he changed the rules so that undergraduates could pick most of their own classes, which means that the students may have not picked Bible classes since they weren’t required.  Before this time most of the presidents were formally pastors, afterwards most of them weren’t.

 

References

World Book Encyclopedia, 2004

http://www.wm.edu/index.php

http://www.harvard.edu

 

 

 

September 25, 2013 at 7:17 pm 2 comments

social classes

I think we have a fine social system. However it does get tricky when there’s someone who gets upset with his place. In our system there are people who are workers, businessmen, traders, rich, Hollywood stars, military, etc. and government officials. The only reason there are classes is because people tend to hang around people only like them. Some people set up are social class like this: Upper Class-Elite, Upper Middle Class, Lower Middle Class, Working Class, and the Poor.  

 

In the early years of America, people came to this continent to escape religious persecution and form churches that their denomination could live and worship together.  This is an example of a group of people with similar qualities living together.

Nazi’s thought that no person could exist without belonging to a certain race. They tried to weed out anyone who wasn’t a part of their race at the same time gathering those similar and the same as themselves. This is a negative example of a social class that went too far in their belief.

 

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007457

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/religion/rel01.html

http://udel.edu/~cmarks/What%20is%20social%20class.htm

September 25, 2013 at 1:09 pm 5 comments

Havard and Princeton

 

Harvard, Princeton

In 1636, the Great and General Court of Massachusetts Bay Colony a Reverend named John Harvard left his personal library and half of his large estate to a new school. His original estate is gone, but there are markers to show where the original buildings were. In the beginning you could get a medical degree and a law and a divinity degree. Harvard became recognized university until the mid 1800’s when they added a science school. In the late 1800’s Harvard’s whole methods of study began to change and become more modern.    

In 1746, the college in New Jersey (which is now known as Princeton University.) was one of British North America’s fourth college’s, which was located in Elizabeth for a year. Then it was moved to Newark for nine years. In 1756, it was moved to Princeton. (I had trouble finding information on Princeton’s Christian roots. I wondered if people were offended about the history.)   

Both Harvard and Princeton were used as training grounds for Christian ministers. Little by little as new students and professors arrived, both these universities began to lose their Christian influence and heritage.     

 Source: http://www.princeton.edu.com

Source: http://www.college.harvard.edu.com

Source: http://www.wnd.com

 

September 25, 2013 at 11:56 am 3 comments

A Step Forward in Communication…

A HISTORY OF NEWSPAPERS AND PRESS.

Sam Operchuck, September 19th, 2013

 

The Newspaper had not truthfully existed until “fore-runners” to it began limited circulation in Germany. These consisted of small pamphlets with heavily “sensationalized” news. As for England, the first published title was “The Weekly Newes of 1622″ however the first true newspaper was “The London Gazette”  In 1666.

 

In the “New World”, the first attempt at a newspaper was made in Boston in 1690, under the name of “Publick Occurrences”. But because it was printed without authority to do so, it was immediately rejected, the author arrested, and all copies destroyed. “it remained forgotten until 1845 when the only known surviving example was discovered in the British Library.” The first newspaper approved by the government, and also the first successful one, was the “Boston News-Letter”, created by John Campbell in 1704. “By 1814 there were 346 newspapers” … in existance, one of which would play a key role in the shaping of news and press. That paper was the penny press; a paper that cost a penny. While most competing papers sold for around 6 cents, this opened up the world of news to the lower, less educated class of people who previously could not afford a “luxury” such as a newspaper. The first widely popular “penny paper” was the New York Sun, founded by Benjamin H. The paper’s motto was The object of this paper is to lay before the public, at a price within the means of every one, all the news of the day, and at the same time offer an advantageous medium for advertisements.” In this way, the paper also opened up a new route for marketing that was not available previously.

Because the main drive behind many newspapers was not publicity, but rather (as stated above) the push for freedom of the press, papers closer to the origin of the newspaper as we know it today were certainly more fact-focused and less opinionated.

However, some who dared to question the government (such as James Franklin) were dealt with severely: “When James Franklin published an editorial criticizing the government, he was sent to prison. James’ 13 year old brother and apprentice, Ben, took over the work of laying type, printing, and delivery of the issues. Six months later, James Franklin was forbidden to publish any more newspapers so the masthead now carried the name “Ben Franklin” as editor and publisher. ” 

Present-day news is spread almost instantaneously, with the help of the internet and mobile devices. Events happening live can be seen around the world and will already have been reported globally by the end of the day. While in many ways this enables people to do great good, it also opens the door for rumors to quickly build, and criticism to go almost untamed. Especially because people on the internet many times do not have to present themselves with names linking them to the real world, individuals express themselves much more flamboyantly and arguments erupt much faster. The Internet also leaves room for opinions to easily mix with facts, and for stories to build on legend. While in many ways the internet plays a key role in shaping how efficient our lives are today, sometimes it causes more harm then good. 

 

 

Citations ::

•Barber, Phil. http://www.historicpages.com/nprhist.htm

•Unknown, http://iml.jou.ufl.edu/projects/spring04/vance/pennypress.html

•Unknown, http://library.thinkquest.org/18764/print/history.html

September 19, 2013 at 1:49 pm 3 comments

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